35 & nbsp; years ago, 19 & nbsp; November 19, 1986, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted the law “ On & nbsp; individual labor activity of citizens of the USSR ''.
The law applied to the & nbsp; activities of citizens in the & nbsp; sphere of technology, science, literature and & nbsp; art, and & nbsp; also to & nbsp; the performance of paid work that is of a one-time nature. It was especially emphasized that these works should be insignificant in terms of & nbsp; volume and & nbsp; wages. All adult citizens were allowed to engage in self-employment (ITD), but & nbsp; in & nbsp; free time from & nbsp; main work.
In fact, the authorities allowed & nbsp; what was & nbsp; so present in & nbsp; Soviet society & nbsp; & mdash; private services. But & nbsp; & mdash; with & nbsp; many caveats. First of all, citizens who expressed a desire to engage in ITD had to obtain permission from local executive authorities. Private traders were forbidden to hire hired workers, but & nbsp; you could adapt your family to & nbsp; business. Individuals were allowed, for example, to do bookbinding and & nbsp; typewritten works, but & nbsp; were forbidden to make seals and & nbsp; stamps.
Checks on & nbsp; roads
The most interesting thing is that shortly before & nbsp; this innovation Mikhail Gorbachev on the contrary, he tightened the screws in the & nbsp; sphere of private entrepreneurship more abruptly than some of his predecessors in the & nbsp; post of general secretary. In & nbsp; May 1986, a decree was issued on & nbsp; strengthening the fight against & nbsp; unearned income. For & nbsp; speculation, currency transactions and & nbsp; private entrepreneurial activity, criminal liability in the & nbsp; USSR was provided for and & nbsp; earlier. But & nbsp; this decree significantly expanded the very concept of “ unearned income '', including in & nbsp; all types and & nbsp; forms of ITD. The real punishment could be obtained for & nbsp; tutoring, sewing clothes at & nbsp; home, apartment renovation and & nbsp; much more.
The situation at that time is reflected, for example, by such an anecdote. The bear and the & nbsp; crocodile were taken and & nbsp; imprisoned, accusing them & nbsp; of receiving unearned income due to the fact that & nbsp; one had a chic fur coat, and & nbsp; another had an expensive leather coat. After a while, a goose was brought to the & nbsp; cell. & nbsp; & nbsp; & raquo; & nbsp; & mdash; asked a bear with a crocodile. “ Yes & nbsp; to & nbsp; south & nbsp; I & nbsp; fly every year & raquo;, & nbsp; & mdash; he answered.
The system of unofficial labor activity took shape in the & nbsp; USSR for decades and & nbsp; filled those niches in which the state economy worked ineffectively. Moreover, such activities did not & nbsp; bring any harm to the state itself. During the & nbsp; times of Brezhnev, some types of labor activity of citizens, mostly associated with & nbsp; consumer services for the population and & nbsp; growing vegetables and & nbsp; fruits, were not persecuted. But since the & nbsp; summer of 1986, the campaign to & nbsp; fight against & nbsp; “ unearned income '' unfolded in & nbsp; the whole breadth. The system of renting apartments for rent was limited and & nbsp; strictly controlled, greenhouses more than 15 & nbsp; sq. In size were destroyed. meters, “ surplus products '' were taken from & nbsp; household plots, trade in the & nbsp; collective farm markets has significantly decreased.
In the & nbsp; cities, the owners of personal and & nbsp; drivers of official vehicles were taken under special supervision. As the heroine of the movie “ The Diamond Arm '' said: “Our people don’t take a taxi in the & nbsp; bakery.” Indeed, people are not & nbsp; that & nbsp; that in & nbsp; bakery, but & nbsp; and & nbsp; generally on & nbsp; taxis went infrequently. Firstly, it is expensive, and & nbsp; and secondly, the taxis themselves were not & nbsp; enough. And & nbsp; here they & nbsp; to & nbsp; leftist private traders or chauffeurs of company cars came to the proceeds. It was impossible to take money from fellow travelers, as the drivers called the passengers. The inspectors strictly followed & nbsp; this. Sometimes, disguised as plainclothes police officers, disguised as passengers, got into such cars and & nbsp; at the & nbsp; end of the trip they offered the driver money. If he took & nbsp; them, then & nbsp; he could be accused of using a personal vehicle for & nbsp; purposes of profit.
'Do the little thing while Yeltsin'
Gorbachev's ability to quickly rebuild on the & nbsp; move is amazing and & nbsp; even delightful. Literally in & nbsp; for several months, he from & nbsp; from an ardent fighter with & nbsp; unearned income turned into & nbsp; supporter and & nbsp; promoter of self-employment in & nbsp; country. As for the excesses of 1986 & nbsp; years, then & nbsp; Mikhail Sergeyevich recognizes & nbsp; them, but & nbsp; disowns & nbsp; together with & nbsp; worked out resolutions. He & nbsp; writes in & nbsp; his memoirs: & nbsp; May decisions on & nbsp; strengthening the fight against & nbsp; unearned income, the position of that part of the party and state apparatus that did not & nbsp; accept the line of leadership was manifested. And & nbsp; we & nbsp; just overlooked the preparation and & nbsp; release of unilaterally directed solutions. Then I had to & nbsp; correct them.
The entry into force of the & nbsp; ITD law was postponed until & nbsp; May 1987 & nbsp; year. Yes & nbsp; and & nbsp; Soviet workers themselves were not in a hurry to become individual entrepreneurs, remembering & nbsp; Gorbachev's sharp turns. In the & nbsp; era of growing scarcity, they acted according to the & nbsp; old principle: “ Get every nail from the & nbsp; factory, you & nbsp; are the owner here, and & nbsp; are not & nbsp; a guest! ''. Fortunately, the state turned a blind eye to & nbsp; and & nbsp; even called such people not & nbsp; thieves, but & nbsp; much more affectionately & nbsp; & mdash; nesunami.
As a result, the law on & nbsp; ITD and & nbsp; did not & nbsp; work. By & nbsp; by that time, another law had already been passed & nbsp; & mdash; “ About & nbsp; cooperatives '', according to & nbsp; which cooperatives could own vehicles, equipment and & nbsp; buildings. It was then that in the & nbsp; circle of enterprising people they paraphrased the well-known proverb & nbsp; & mdash; Strike while Gorbachev. And & nbsp; soon to & nbsp; added another one: “ Do the little thing while Yeltsin ''. True, labor in & nbsp; cooperatives still continued to be considered socialist, since all members of the cooperative owned the means of production jointly. In & nbsp; 1987 alone, almost 15 & nbsp; thousand cooperatives appeared in the & nbsp; USSR, and & nbsp; a year later their & nbsp; was already about 80 & nbsp; thousand.